Brace Yourselves, New Yorkers, You’re Due for a Major Quake
A couple of hundred thousand years ago, an M 7.2 earthquake shook what is now New Hampshire. Just a few thousand years ago, an M 7.5 quake ruptured just off the coast of Massachusetts. And then there’s New York.
Since the first western settlers arrived there, the state has witnessed 200 quakes of magnitude 2.0 or greater, making it the third most seismically active state east of the Mississippi (Tennessee and South Carolina are ranked numbers one and two, respectively). About once a century, New York has also experienced an M 5.0 quake capable of doing real damage.
The most recent one near New York City occurred in August of 1884. Centered off Long Island’s Rockaway Beach, it was felt over 70,000 square miles. It also opened enormous crevices near the Brooklyn reservoir and knocked down chimneys and cracked walls in Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Police on the Brooklyn Bridge said it swayed “as if struck by a hurricane” and worried the bridge’s towers would collapse. Meanwhile, residents throughout New York and New Jersey reported sounds that varied from explosions to loud rumblings, sometimes to comic effect. At the funeral of Lewis Ingler, a small group of mourners were watching as the priest began to pray. The quake cracked an enormous mirror behind the casket and knocked off a display of flowers that had been resting on top of it. When it began to shake the casket’s silver handles, the mourners decided the unholy return of Lewis Ingler was more than they could take and began flinging themselves out windows and doors.
Not all stories were so light. Two people died during the quake, both allegedly of fright. Out at sea, the captain of the brig Alice felt a heavy lurch that threw him and his crew, followed by a shaking that lasted nearly a minute. He was certain he had hit a wreck and was taking on water.
A day after the quake, the editors of The New York Times sought to allay readers’ fear. The quake, they said, was an unexpected fluke never to be repeated and not worth anyone’s attention: “History and the researches of scientific men indicate that great seismic disturbances occur only within geographical limits that are now well defined,” they wrote in an editorial. “The northeastern portion of the United States . . . is not within those limits.” The editors then went on to scoff at the histrionics displayed by New York residents when confronted by the quake: “They do not stop to reason or to recall the fact that earthquakes here are harmless phenomena. They only know that the solid earth, to whose immovability they have always turned with confidence when everything else seemed transitory, uncertain, and deceptive, is trembling and in motion, and the tremor ceases long before their disturbed minds become tranquil.”
That’s the kind of thing that drives Columbia’s Heather Savage nuts.
New York, she says, is positively vivisected by faults. Most of them fall into two groups—those running northeast and those running northwest. Combined they create a brittle grid underlying much of Manhattan.
Across town, Charles Merguerian has been studying these faults the old‐fashioned way: by getting down and dirty underground. He’s spent the past forty years sloshing through some of the city’s muckiest places: basements and foundations, sewers and tunnels, sometimes as deep as 750 feet belowground. His tools down there consist primarily of a pair of muck boots, a bright blue hard hat, and a pickax. In public presentations, he claims he is also ably abetted by an assistant hamster named Hammie, who maintains his own website, which includes, among other things, photos of the rodent taking down Godzilla.
That’s just one example why, if you were going to cast a sitcom starring two geophysicists, you’d want Savage and Merguerian to play the leading roles. Merguerian is as eccentric and flamboyant as Savage is earnest and understated. In his press materials, the former promises to arrive at lectures “fully clothed.” Photos of his “lab” depict a dingy porta‐john in an abandoned subway tunnel. He actively maintains an archive of vintage Chinese fireworks labels at least as extensive as his list of publications, and his professional website includes a discography of blues tunes particularly suitable for earthquakes. He calls female science writers “sweetheart” and somehow manages to do so in a way that kind of makes them like it (although they remain nevertheless somewhat embarrassed to admit it).
It’s Merguerian’s boots‐on‐the‐ground approach that has provided much of the information we need to understand just what’s going on underneath Gotham. By his count, Merguerian has walked the entire island of Manhattan: every street, every alley. He’s been in most of the tunnels there, too. His favorite one by far is the newest water tunnel in western Queens. Over the course of 150 days, Merguerian mapped all five miles of it. And that mapping has done much to inform what we know about seismicity in New York.
Most importantly, he says, it provided the first definitive proof of just how many faults really lie below the surface there. And as the city continues to excavate its subterranean limits, Merguerian is committed to following closely behind. It’s a messy business.
Down below the city, Merguerian encounters muck of every flavor and variety. He power‐washes what he can and relies upon a diver’s halogen flashlight and a digital camera with a very, very good flash to make up the difference. And through this process, Merguerian has found thousands of faults, some of which were big enough to alter the course of the Bronx River after the last ice age.
His is a tricky kind of detective work. The center of a fault is primarily pulverized rock. For these New York faults, that gouge was the very first thing to be swept away by passing glaciers. To do his work, then, he’s primarily looking for what geologists call “offsets”—places where the types of rock don’t line up with one another. That kind of irregularity shows signs of movement over time—clear evidence of a fault.
Merguerian has found a lot of them underneath New York City.
These faults, he says, do a lot to explain the geological history of Manhattan and the surrounding area. They were created millions of years ago, when what is now the East Coast was the site of a violent subduction zone not unlike those present now in the Pacific’s Ring of Fire.
Each time that occurred, the land currently known as the Mid‐Atlantic underwent an accordion effect as it was violently folded into itself again and again. The process created immense mountains that have eroded over time and been further scoured by glaciers. What remains is a hodgepodge of geological conditions ranging from solid bedrock to glacial till to brittle rock still bearing the cracks of the collision. And, says Merguerian, any one of them could cause an earthquake.
You don’t have to follow him belowground to find these fractures. Even with all the development in our most built‐up metropolis, evidence of these faults can be found everywhere—from 42nd Street to Greenwich Village. But if you want the starkest example of all, hop the 1 train at Times Square and head uptown to Harlem. Not far from where the Columbia University bus collects people for the trip to the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory, the subway tracks seem to pop out of the ground onto a trestle bridge before dropping back down to earth. That, however, is just an illusion. What actually happens there is that the ground drops out below the train at the site of one of New York’s largest faults. It’s known by geologists in the region as the Manhattanville or 125th Street Fault, and it runs all the way across the top of Central Park and, eventually, underneath Long Island City. Geologists have known about the fault since 1939, when the city undertook a massive subway mapping project, but it wasn’t until recently that they confirmed its potential for a significant quake.
In our lifetimes, a series of small earthquakes have been recorded on the Manhattanville Fault including, most recently, one on October 27, 2001. Its epicenter was located around 55th and 8th—directly beneath the original Original Soupman restaurant, owned by restaurateur Ali Yeganeh, the inspiration for Seinfeld’s Soup Nazi. That fact delighted sitcom fans across the country, though few Manhattanites were in any mood to appreciate it.
The October 2001 quake itself was small—about M 2.6—but the effect on residents there was significant. Just six weeks prior, the city had been rocked by the 9/11 terrorist attacks that brought down the World Trade Center towers. The team at Lamont‐Doherty has maintained a seismic network in the region since the ’70s. They registered the collapse of the first tower at M 2.1. Half an hour later, the second tower crumbled with even more force and registered M 2.3. In a city still shocked by that catastrophe, the early‐morning October quake—several times greater than the collapse of either tower—jolted millions of residents awake with both reminders of the tragedy and fear of yet another attack. 9‐1‐1 calls overwhelmed dispatchers and first responders with reports of shaking buildings and questions about safety in the city. For seismologists, though, that little quake was less about foreign threats to our soil and more about the possibility of larger tremors to come.
Remember: The Big Apple has experienced an M 5.0 quake about every hundred years. The last one was that 1884 event. And that, says Merguerian, means the city is overdue. Just how overdue?
“Gee whiz!” He laughs when I pose this question. “That’s the holy grail of seismicity, isn’t it?”
He says all we can do to answer that question is “take the pulse of what’s gone on in recorded history.” To really have an answer, we’d need to have about ten times as much data as we do today. But from what he’s seen, the faults below New York are very much alive.
“These guys are loaded,” he tells me.
He says he is also concerned about new studies of a previously unknown fault zone known as the Ramapo that runs not far from the city. Savage shares his concerns. They both think it’s capable of an M 6.0 quake or even higher—maybe even a 7.0. If and when, though, is really anybody’s guess.
“We literally have no idea what’s happening in our backyard,” says Savage.
What we do know is that these quakes have the potential to do more damage than similar ones out West, mostly because they are occurring on far harder rock capable of propagating waves much farther. And because these quakes occur in places with higher population densities, these eastern events can affect a lot more people. Take the 2011 Virginia quake: Although it was only a moderate one, more Americans felt it than any other one in our nation’s history.
That’s the thing about the East Coast: Its earthquake hazard may be lower than that of the West Coast, but the total effect of any given quake is much higher. Disaster specialists talk about this in terms of risk, and they make sense of it with an equation that multiplies the potential hazard of an event by the cost of damage and the number of people harmed. When you take all of those factors into account, the earthquake risk in New York is much greater than, say, that in Alaska or Hawaii or even a lot of the area around the San Andreas Fault.
Merguerian has been sounding the alarm about earthquake risk in the city since the ’90s. He admits he hasn’t gotten much of a response. He says that when he first proposed the idea of seismic risk in New York City, his fellow scientists “booed and threw vegetables” at him. He volunteered his services to the city’s Office of Emergency Management but says his original offer also fell on deaf ears.
“So I backed away gently and went back to academia.”
Today, he says, the city isn’t much more responsive, but he’s getting a much better response from his peers.
He’s glad for that, he says, but it’s not enough. If anything, the events of 9/11, along with the devastation caused in 2012 by Superstorm Sandy, should tell us just how bad it could be there.
He and Savage agree that what makes the risk most troubling is just how little we know about it. When it comes right down to it, intraplate faults are the least understood. Some scientists think they might be caused by mantle flow deep below the earth’s crust. Others think they might be related to gravitational energy. Still others think quakes occurring there might be caused by the force of the Atlantic ridge as it pushes outward. Then again, it could be because the land is springing back after being compressed thousands of years ago by glaciers (a phenomenon geologists refer to as seismic rebound).
“We just have no consciousness towards earthquakes in the eastern United States,” says Merguerian. “And that’s a big mistake.”
Adapted from Quakeland: On the Road to America’s Next Devastating Earthquake by Kathryn Miles, published by Dutton, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House, LLC. Copyright © 2017 by Kathryn Miles.
The advanced weapons, which the U.S. believes can carry nuclear warheads, will be deployed to the Atlantic in an attempt by Vladimir Putin to restore a military edge after his Ukraine failures.
Jan. 4, 2023, at 1:58 p.m.SaveCommentMore
A Zircon hypersonic cruise missile is launched by the frigate named “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov” of the Russian navy, seen on May 28, 2022, in the Barents Sea.(RUSSIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY PRESS SERVICE/AP-FILE)
Russian President Vladimir Putin has dispatched a warship bearing hypersonic missiles into the Atlantic Ocean in a clear affront to U.S. support for Ukraine in its war against Russia’s invaders.
Putin made the announcement at a virtual event attended by his top military officials, affirming on Wednesday that the frigate Gorshkov, newly christened into service and loaded with Tsirkon hypersonic missiles, would embark on a voyage through the Indian and Atlantic oceans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea.
Putin claimed the missiles on board – which the U.S. assesses are potentially capable of bearing nuclear warheads – have no equal in the world, adding, “I am sure that such powerful weapons will reliably protect Russia from potential external threats and will help ensure the national interests of our country,” according to a translation of his remarks.
The provocative rhetoric comes at a time the Kremlin is eager to demonstrate its military potency, following a string of high-profile and embarrassing battlefield failures by the Russian Ministry of Defense on the ground in Ukraine nearly a year after it first invaded on Feb. 24. A campaign Kremlin war planners originally thought would take days has subsequently devolved into beleaguered, entrenched fighting against adversaries in the Ukrainian military – backed by the U.S., NATO and European partners – that Moscow and the West alike originally did not believe could weather the former superpower’s unprovoked assault.
Several analysts pointed out at the end of 2022 that the U.S., employing roughly 5% of its military budget in support for Ukraine, has effectively destroyed 50% of Russia’s military might.
Now Putin is seeking unique advantages to push back against the Western-backed momentum, seizing on a particular military edge that has raised alarm among some military analysts and congressional lawmakers.
The independent Congressional Research Service concluded in a report published last month that the U.S. trails Russia, as well as China, in its development of hypersonic missiles. Proponents believe these weapons, which fly at speeds of at least Mach 5, serve as a new way to confound decades-old strategies for deterrence.
“Funding for hypersonic weapons has been relatively restrained in the past; however, both the Pentagon and Congress have shown a growing interest in pursuing the development and near-term deployment of hypersonic systems,” according to the report. “This is due, in part, to the advances in these technologies in Russia and China, both of which have a number of hypersonic weapons programs and have likely fielded operational hypersonic glide vehicles – potentially armed with nuclear warheads.”
It notes that the U.S. variants currently under development are not designed to carry a nuclear warhead and, as a result, will likely need to be more accurate and will be harder to develop than the Chinese or Russian versions.
The Military Times reported on Sunday that the U.S. Army in a program it’s developing with the Navy plans to conduct two additional hypersonic missile tests soon with a goal of fielding them by the end of this year.
Not all analysts and officials support calls for the U.S. to develop these missiles urgently, however. Several critics believe that hypersonic weapons, in addition to lacking the precision of slower-moving missiles, contribute little to the U.S. military’s capability and are not necessary to deter against attacks from countries like Russia and China.
Still Russia on Wednesday sought to capitalize on what it has framed as a clear strategic advantage over the U.S. and other potential adversaries.
Sergey Shoigu, the embattled Russian defense minister fielding much of the blame for failures in Ukraine, asserted at the event with Putin that the Gorshkov’s deployment will focus on “countering Russia’s threats” in addition to maintaining peace and building the support of its allies.
A translation of his remarks noted that he believes the presence of the missiles will “solve problems” for Russia in faraway seas and oceans.
Russia is not the only world power that has employed its navy in a bid to push back against what it considers provocations from the Biden administration. China in late December sailed one of its aircraft carriers near Guam, claiming it came closer than ever before to the U.S. territory. It signaled the deployment served as a warning against the U.S. employing military support for the island nation of Taiwan, which Beijing considers nothing more than a rogue province of the mainland.
- Sadr grew from militia leader to political kingmaker
- Cleric who withdrew from politics may eye next vote
- Stepping aside could weaken Sadr’s popular base
- Sadr emerged in the chaos after U.S. invaded Iraq
BAGHDAD, Dec 29 (Reuters) – Moqtada al-Sadr, the Muslim Shi’ite cleric who dominated Iraqi politics for two decades, seems isolated for now after his move to step back from formal politics emboldened his Iranian-backed rivals and raised the prospect of fresh factional flare-ups.
Iran, which already controls dozens of heavily-armed Shi’ite militias in its oil-producing neighbour, may now have an opportunity to expand its influence over Iraq’s government, a worst case scenario for the United States and its allies.
Although Sadr won a parliamentary majority in a 2021 election, he chose to withdraw in August after his failed, year-long bid to form a cabinet without rivals close to Iran.
Sadr’s decision may already be driving away some of the swathes of followers who helped propel him to the centre of Iraqi politics in the chaotic aftermath of the 2003 U.S.-led invasion that toppled longtime dictator, Saddam Hussein.
“Some of the followers who support his eminence Sayed Moqtada have started to complain that retreating from politics and parliament will leave the path more open for corrupt parties to control government,” said Ali al-Iqabi, a Sadrist activist.
“Unfortunately that has happened now,” he told Reuters.
New Prime Minister Mohammed al-Sudani has reshuffled several top security posts and installed officials who are close to Iran-backed parties, including in the critical position of chief of military intelligence, four security officials told Reuters.
The post was previously held by a more pro-Western official.
But Sudani has privately rejected calls by Sadr’s opponents to sack pro-Sadr government officials, fearing that would push Iraq back into violence, five Shi’ite lawmakers and two senior Sadrist officials said.
This account was corroborated by four Shi’ite lawmakers who attended meetings between Sudani and Shi’ite politicians on Oct. 20 and Dec.11.
PLANNING A RETURN?
Sadr’s followers took to the streets after he stepped back from politics, and the country briefly slid toward a civil war between Shi’ite factions until the protests were called off.
“Sudani is struggling not to awaken the dragon,” said one Shi’ite government official who attends weekly cabinet meetings.
Sudani’s office did not respond to a request for comment about the appointments or his refusal to move against officials seen as having ties to Sadr.
Sadr, who has not made the kind of public appearances that once fired up supporters and intimidated rivals, has retreated from politics before only to make a return. Some of those close to the mercurial cleric expect this withdrawal to be temporary.
“As soon as there is a sign of a new election Sadr will sign up,” one of those close to him told Reuters.
Sadr, who has closed several of his offices since his withdrawal from politics, could not be reached for comment.
A representative of the cleric in the city of Kerbala said: “Sadr is watching closely the political developments and performance of Sudani’s government which he (Sadr) believes would not last much longer.”
A 2022 survey by British think-tank Chatham House found Sadr supporters were more likely to vote than other groups.
But, alongside losing some backing on the street, his hand may now have been weakened y his reluctance to show more pragmatism in forming a government with those backed by Tehran, which some see as an ally in the fight against Islamic State.
“The failure of Sadr to form such a government and the collapse of his alliance in the face of pushback from Iran and its allies in Iraq has affected Moqtada’s political position and forced him and his movement to take back seats,” said Baghdad-based analyst Jasim al-Bahadli.
Pro-Sadr clerics, former legislators and analysts say Sadr has no clearly defined political role for the first time since 2005, leaving him at his weakest since entering Iraqi politics.
In August, Ayatollah Kadhim al-Haeri, a religious scholar in Iran who was anointed as a spiritual adviser by Sadr’s father, angered Sadr’s supporters by saying Sadr had split Shi’ites.
Sadr officials, pro-Sadr Shi’ite clerics and religious sources in the sacred Iraqi city of Najaf told Reuters they believed Tehran was behind the pronouncement.
Haeri told Sadr’s followers to seek future guidance on religious matters from Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, a scholar who is Iran’s Supreme Leader.
Sadr himself also suggested Haeri spoke under pressure without naming who was to blame. “I don’t believe he did this of his own volition,” Sadr wrote on Twitter.
Ghazi Faisal, chairman of the Iraqi Center for Strategic Studies think-tank, said Haeri gave “momentum to Iranian efforts to consolidate the powers of its allies in Iraqi politics.”
When asked for comment by Reuters, a representative of Haeri said the scholar did not comment on politics.
Many Shi’ite Iraqis still view Sadr as a hero of the downtrodden. He inherited much early legitimacy from his father, a revered cleric assassinated by Saddam Hussein’s agents, before building his own powerbase and leading hundreds of thousands of followers in protests against everything from corruption to inflation.
Human rights groups accused Sadr militiamen of kidnapping and killing Sunnis at the height of Iraq’s civil war. Sadr says his fighters were hunting down Sunni insurgents not civilians.
Military says projectile failed to cross border, landed short in Hamas-run territory; no sirens sounded
Illustrative: Rockets being fired by Islamic Jihad toward Israel from the Gaza Strip, on August 5, 2022. (Attia Muhammed/Flash90)
A rocket was fired from the Gaza Strip at southern Israel on Tuesday night, the military said, after National Security Minister Itamar Ben Gvir paid a morning visit to the flashpoint Temple Mount site, which houses the Al-Aqsa Mosque, amid retaliation threats from the coastal enclave’s rulers, the Hamas terror group.
The Israel Defense Forces said the projectile landed short, inside the Strip, apparently causing no injuries or damage.
Incoming rocket sirens did not sound in Israeli communities as the rocket was projected by defense systems to land in the Hamas-run territory.
Israeli residents of towns near the border reported hearing a large explosion.
The IDF said there were no special instructions for residents following the rocket fire.
The rocket fire came after Hamas had warned that a visit by Ben Gvir to the Temple Mount would be a “detonator,” and vowed resistance.
Ben Gvir and his party have repeatedly dismissed the Hamas threats.
The newly minted national security minister, who has long been accused of being a provocateur, made several trips to the Temple Mount as an activist and Knesset member and has also led contentious nationalist marches through the Muslim Quarter in Jerusalem’s Old City. On several occasions, he set up an ad hoc office in East Jerusalem’s Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood, which has also been at the center of Israeli-Palestinian tensions, kindling unrest.
National Security Minister Itamar Ben Gvir visits the Temple Mount, January 3, 2023. (Courtesy: Minhelet Har Habayit)
Israel says it holds Hamas responsible for all violence emanating from the Strip and generally responds to rocket fire with airstrikes against the group regardless of who launched the attack.
It was unclear if Israel was preparing a response against the failed rocket launch Tuesday. Rarely has the IDF launched airstrikes in response to rockets that did not manage to cross into Israeli territory from Gaza.
There was no immediate claim by any of the Gaza-based terror groups for the rocket fire.
The last time rockets were fired from the coastal enclave toward Israel was on December 3, apparently in response to the death of two Palestinian Islamic Jihad members during a West Bank raid.
Times of Israel staff contributed to this report.
- January 3, 2023
South Korean President Yoon Suk-yeol’s statement comes after US President Joe Biden said there would be no such drills
Seoul – Seoul and Washington are discussing joint planning and exercises involving US nuclear assets to counter growing threats from the North, South Korea’s presidential office said Tuesday, after US President Joe Biden said there would be no such joint drills.
The statement was released after Biden said the United States was not discussing joint nuclear exercises with South Korea, seemingly contradicting comments by Seoul’s President Yoon Suk-yeol earlier this week.
The two security allies are “in talks over information-sharing, joint planning and the joint implementation plans that follow with regard to the operation of US nuclear assets to respond to North Korea’s nuclear weapons”, Yoon’s office said in a statement.
In an interview with the Chosun Ilbo newspaper published Monday, Yoon said the United States’ existing “nuclear umbrella” and “extended deterrence” were no longer enough to reassure South Koreans.
“The nuclear weapons belong to the United States, but the planning, information sharing, exercises and training must be done jointly by South Korea and the United States,” Yoon said, adding that the US was “quite positive” about the idea.
Hours after that interview was published, Biden gave an emphatic “no” in response to a question on whether the two sides were considering joint nuclear exercises.
Yoon’s office acknowledged Biden’s response but said the US president had been “left with no options but to answer ‘No’ when directly asked… without any context”.
“Joint nuclear exercise is a term only used by nuclear powers,” said Kim Eun-hye, a spokeswoman for the South Korean president’s office.
The back and forth comes after the North’s leader Kim Jong Un called for an “exponential” increase in his country’s nuclear arsenal and new intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) to counter what it termed US and South Korean hostility.
In 2022, the North conducted sanctions-defying weapons tests nearly every month, including firing its most advanced ICBM ever.
Under the hawkish Yoon, South Korea has beefed up joint military drills with the United States, which had been scaled back during the pandemic or paused for a bout of ill-fated diplomacy with the North under his predecessor.
Reported seismic-like event (likely no quake): 41 mi southwest of New York, USA, Tuesday, Jan 3, 2023 at 12:32 am (GMT -5) – 1 day 15 hours ago
Updated: Jan 4, 2023 12:44 GMT – 8 hours ago refresh
|Date & time||Jan 3, 2023 05:32:19 UTC – 1 day 15 hours ago|
|Local time at epicenter||Tuesday, Jan 3, 2023 at 12:32 am (GMT -5)|
|Epicenter latitude / longitude||40.26792°N / 74.53086°W (New York, United States)|
|Antipode||40.268°S / 105.469°E|
|Shaking intensity||Very weak shaking|
|Primary data source||VolcanoDiscovery (User-reported shaking)|
|Nearby towns and cities||20 km (13 mi) SSW of East Brunswick (New Jersey) (pop: 48,500) | Show on map | Quakes nearby|
28 km (17 mi) SW of Sayreville Junction (New Jersey) (pop: 42,900) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
28 km (17 mi) SSW of Piscataway (New Jersey) (pop: 56,000) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
30 km (18 mi) SSW of Menlo Park (New Jersey) (pop: 102,500) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
35 km (22 mi) SW of Perth Amboy (New Jersey) (pop: 52,700) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
65 km (40 mi) SW of Brooklyn (New York) (pop: 2,300,700) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
67 km (41 mi) SW of New York (pop: 8,175,100) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
264 km (164 mi) NE of Washington (District of Columbia) (pop: 601,700) | Show on map | Quakes nearby
|Weather at epicenter at time of quake||Overcast Clouds 9.3°C (49 F), humidity: 84%, wind: 0 m/s (0 kts)|
Leaflet | © Esri— Sources: GEBCO, NOAA, CHS, OSU, UNH, CSUMB, National Geographic, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, and Esri
Seismic station: Fordham University, The Bronx, NYC (FOR/LD network) | Distance from quake: 86 km / 53 mi | Show on map | Station Info
Seismogram (vertical component) around time of quake. Thin dotted red line indicates time of quake. Seismic waves arrive some time later, depending on distance. Bandpass filter applied: 0.5-10.0 Hz. Source: IRIS Buffer of Uniform Data (BUD) webtool