Earthquake activity in the New York City area


Although the eastern United States is not as

seismically active

as regions near plate boundaries, large and damaging earthquakes do occur there. Furthermore, when these rare eastern U.S. earthquakes occur, the areas affected by them are much larger than for western U.S. earthquakes of the same magnitude.

Thus, earthquakes represent at least a moderate hazard to East Coast cities, including New York City and adjacent areas of very high population density.

Seismicity in the vicinity of New York City. Data are from the U.S. Geological Survey (Top, USGS) and the National Earthquake Information Center (Bottom, NEIC). In the top figure, closed red circles indicate 1924-2006 epicenters and open black circles indicate locations of the larger earthquakes that occurred in 1737, 1783 and 1884. Green lines indicate the trace of the Ramapo fault.

As can be seen in the maps of earthquake activity in this region(shown in the figure),

seismicity is scattered throughout most of the New York City area, with some hint of a concentration of earthquakes in the area surrounding Manhattan Island.

The largest known earthquake in this region occurred in 1884 and had a magnitude of approximately 5.For this earthquake, observations of fallen bricks and cracked plaster were reported from eastern Pennsylvania to central Connecticut, and the maximum intensity reported was at two sites in western Long Island (Jamaica, New York and Amityville, New York).

Two other earthquakes of approximately magnitude 5 occurred in this region in 1737 and 1783. The figure on the right shows maps of the distribution of earthquakes of magnitude 3 and greater that occurred in this region from 1924 to 2010, along with locations of the larger earthquakes that occurred in 1737, 1783 and 1884.


The NYC area is part of the geologically complex structure of the Northern

Appalachian Mountains. This complex structure was formed during the past half billion years when the Earth’s crust underlying the Northern Appalachians was the site of two major geological episodes, each of which has left its imprint on the NYC area bedrock.

Between about 450 million years ago and about 250 million years ago, the Northern Appalachian region was affected by a continental collision, in which the ancient African continent collided with the ancient North American continent to form the supercontinent Pangaea.

Beginning about 200 million years ago, the present-day Atlantic ocean began to form as plate tectonic forces began to


apart the continent of Pangaea. The last major episode of geological activity to affect the


in the New York area occurred about 100 million years ago, during the Mesozoic era, when continental rifting that led to the opening of the present-day Atlantic ocean formed the Hartford and


Mesozoic rift basins.

Earthquake rates in the northeastern United States are about 50 to 200 times lower than in California, but

the earthquakes that do occur in the northeastern U.S. are typically felt over a much broader region than earthquakes of the same magnitude in the western U.S.This means the area of damage from an earthquake in the northeastern U.S. could be larger than the area of damage caused by an earthquake of the same magnitude in the western U.S. The cooler rocks in the northeastern U.S. contribute to the seismic energy propagating as much as ten times further than in the warmer rocks of California.

A magnitude 4.0 eastern U.S. earthquake typically can be felt as far as 100 km (60 mi) from its

epicenter, but it infrequently causes damage near its source. A magnitude 5.5 eastern U.S. earthquake, although uncommon, can be felt as far as 500 km (300 mi) from its epicenter, and can cause damage as far away as 40 km (25 mi) from its epicenter. Earthquakes stronger than about magnitude 5.0 generate ground motions that are strong enough to be damaging in the epicentral area.

At well-studied plate boundaries like the

San Andreas fault

system in California, scientists can often make observations that allow them to identify the specific fault on which an earthquake took place. In contrast, east of the Rocky Mountains this is rarely the case.

The NYC area is far from the boundaries of the North American plate, which are in the center of the Atlantic Ocean, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the west coast of North America. The seismicity of the northeastern U.S. is generally considered to be due to ancient zones of weakness that are being reactivated in the present-day stress field. In this model, pre-existing faults that were formed during ancient geological episodes persist in the intraplate crust, and the earthquakes occur when the present-day stress is released along these zones of weakness.

The stress that causes the earthquakes is generally considered to be derived from present-day rifting at the Mid-Atlantic ridge.

Earthquakes and geologically mapped faults in the Northeastern U.S.

The northeastern U.S. has many known faults, but virtually all of the known faults have not been active for perhaps 90 million years or more. Also, the locations of the known faults are not well determined at earthquake depths. Accordingly, few (if any) earthquakes in the region can be unambiguously linked to known faults.

Given the current geological and seismological data, it is difficult to determine if a known fault in this region is still active today and could produce a modern earthquake. As in most other areas east of the Rocky Mountains, the best guide to earthquake hazard in the northeastern U.S. is probably the locations of the past earthquakes themselves.

The Ramapo fault and other New York City area faults

The Ramapo Fault, which marks the western boundary of the Newark rift basin, has been argued to be a major seismically active feature of this region,but it is difficult to discern the extent to which the Ramapo fault (or any other specific mapped fault in the area) might be any more of a source of future earthquakes than any other parts of the region. The Ramapo Fault zone spans more than 185 miles (300 kilometers) in

New York,

New Jersey, and

Pennsylvania. It is a system of


between the northern

Appalachian Mountains

and Piedmont areas to the east. This fault is perhaps the best known fault zone in the Mid-Atlantic region, and some small earthquakes have been known to occur in its vicinity. Recently, public knowledge about the fault has increased – especially after the 1970s, when the fault’s proximity to the Indian Point nuclear plant in New York was noticed.

There is insufficient evidence to unequivocally demonstrate any strong correlation of earthquakes in the New York City area with specific faults or other geologic structures in this region. The damaging earthquake affecting New York City in 1884 was probably not associated with the Ramapo fault because the strongest shaking from that earthquake occurred on Long Island (quite far from the trace of the Ramapo fault). The relationship between faults and earthquakes in the New York City area is currently understood to be more complex than any simple association of a specific earthquake with a specific mapped fault.

A 2008 study argued that a magnitude 6 or 7 earthquake might originate from the Ramapo fault zone,

which would almost definitely spawn hundreds or even thousands of fatalities and billions of dollars in damage. Studying around 400 earthquakes over the past 300 years, the study also argued that there was an additional fault zone extending from the Ramapo Fault zone into southwestern Connecticut. As can be seen in the above figure of seismicity, earthquakes are scattered throughout this region, with no particular concentration of activity along the Ramapo fault, or along the hypothesized fault zone extending into southwestern Connecticut.

Just off the northern terminus of the Ramapo fault is the

Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, built between 1956 and 1960 by

Consolidated Edison Company. The plant began operating in 1963, and it has been the subject of a controversy over concerns that an earthquake from the Ramapo fault will affect the power plant. Whether or not the Ramapo fault actually does pose a threat to this nuclear power plant remains an open question.

Hamas calls for ‘periodic wars’ outside the Temple Walls: Revelation 11

IDF aircraft strike Hamas positions in Gaza after rocket fire

Hamas calls for ‘periodic wars’ in Judea and Samaria

If Israel is defeated in the West Bank as it was in Gaza, thousands of Israelis will flee, Hamas co-founder says.

By  JNS and ILH Staff

 Published on  11-14-2022 10:07

 Last modified: 11-14-2022 12:27

Grad rocket launched from Gaza Strip into Israeli territory in November 2012 | Photo: Albert Sadikov / JINI

Mahmoud al-Zahar, a co-founder of Hamas and a former Palestinian Authority foreign minister, said recently that his organization should increase support for terror attacks against Israelis in Judea and Samaria with “words money, and weapons.”

In the interview on Palestine Today TV (Palestinian Islamic Jihad) on Oct. 31, al-Zahar also said that “periodic wars” against Israel should be waged from that territory instead of from the Gaza Strip.

If Israel is defeated in the West Bank as it was in Gaza (a reference to Israel’s 2005 disengagement from the Strip), thousands of Israelis will flee, he predicted.

He also discussed a book he had written about anti-Semitism in America and Europe, saying that by driving out Jews from their countries, Europeans were able to both destroy the Jews and harm Islam.

He claimed that Jews moved to Palestine as an “investment venture.”

Reprinted with permission from

The China and Russian Horns Separate


China has distanced itself from Russia. Friendship is gone: They are embarrassed


According to a senior US official, Li Keqiang stressed that nuclear threats are “irresponsible” and “spoke quite extensively about China’s policy towards Ukraine.”

Li “put a clear emphasis on sovereignty, on the irresponsibility of nuclear threats, the need to ensure that nuclear weapons are not used in the way that some are suggesting,” the official said after the Chinese Prime Minister attended the G20 summit in Cambodia.

China has been a strategic partner of Russia but has distanced itself from some of Moscow’s rhetoric. After the illegal annexation of four regions of Ukraine, Russian President Vladimir Putin said he was ready to use all necessary means, including nuclear weapons, to protect Moscow’s territory.

Biden Sends Warning to the Chinese Nuclear Horn

Joe Biden to warn China of more US troops if North Korea continues its nuclear programme

President Joe Biden and Xi Jinping are set to discuss Taiwan and North Korea in a key meeting between the pair on Monday. It is the first in-person meeting between the two since Biden took office

Biden and Xi are set for an important meeting on Monday (

Benjamin LynchNews Reporter

  • 18:20, 12 Nov 2022

President Joe Biden is set to meet with Chinese leader Xi Jinping on Monday and is expected to ask his counterpart to reign in nuke-threatening North Korea.

The pair will meet in person for the first time since Biden came into office in January 2021 and his national security adviser, Jake Sullivan, indicated the nearby rogue state will be on the list of topics.

It is reported that Biden will emphasise containing North Korean attempts to test its nuclear capabilities, amid reports and concerns the state headed by Kim Jong-un will soon carry out a nuclear test.

Sullivan said on Saturday that demands would not be made of Xi, but that “If North Korea goes down this road, it will simply mean further enhanced American military and security presence in the region.”

President Joe Biden

Sullivan said China “has an interest in playing a constructive role in restraining North Korea’s worst tendencies” ( 

Image: AFP via Getty Images)

He added: “And so, the [People’s Republic of China] has an interest in playing a constructive role in restraining North Korea’s worst tendencies; whether they choose to do so or not is of course up to them.”

Extra military personnel would add to China’s objection over the US presence in the region, so it may appeal to them to try and keep their neighbour and only true ally in check.

The US has attempted to exert influence over China in the region over concerns for human rights issues such as the persecution of Uighurs in Xinjiang and controls on the exportation of semiconductor chips.

Tensions between China and the US increased earlier this year amid Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s bid to Taiwan.

Support for Taiwan is high in Congress and Pelosi was not there on Biden’s orders, but China responded by moving military equipment to its east coast, firing warning shots over the island and jets near Taiwan airspace.

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) continues to see its ‘One China’ policy, the belief that Taiwan should be under mainland rule, as central to its diplomatic aims.

Chinese President Xi Jinping

Xi and Biden are likely to discuss Taiwan and North Korea 

China was outraged at the change of position by the US away from its previous tactic of “strategic ambiguity,” instead insisting it would be forced to step in if China attacked Taiwan.

The US has been deliberately non-specific in the policy change, avoiding committing to a military defence of the island, but Biden has said the island would be defended in some way.

On Thursday, Biden said: “I’m sure we’ll discuss Taiwan… and what I want to do with him when we talk is lay out… what each of our red lines are.”

Biden added the US is unlikely to change its stance on defending the island. Xi’s China, meanwhile, is hoping “strengthen military training in preparation for war.”

Russian Rally Urges Putin to Strike US With Nuke

russian nuclear strike washington
Above, an ICBM being wheeled through Moscow is seen during a Russian military parade. A recent rally in Moscow saw citizens calling for Russia to launch nuclear attacks on Washington, D.C.YURI KADOBNOV/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES

Russian Rally Urges Putin to Strike US With Nuke-Capable Satan II Missile


Arally recently held in Moscow saw attendees and leaders calling for Russian President Vladimir Putin to launch a nuclear strike against Washington, D.C.

A clip from the rally was shared to Twitter on Saturday morning by Julia Davis, creator of the Russian Media Monitor and columnist for The Daily Beast. In the video, a man can be seen leading a crowd of people through the streets of Moscow and through chants calling for attacks on Washington.

“Strike the decision-making centers,” the man leading the crowd shouts. “On Washington! A flight task for the Sarmat missile. On Washington! Sarmat, strike the enemy’s cities. On Washington!…U.S.A. is the enemy! We will go to heaven as martyrs. They will simply croak.”

The Sarmat missile referred to during the rally is the RS-28 Sarmat intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), a thermonuclear weapon added to Russia’s arsenal in 2018 and nicknamed the “Satan II.”

As Davis wrote in her tweet, the rally-goers’ “we will go to heaven as martyrs” statement is in reference to comments made by Putin in 2018. Despite the rally calling for action, the comments they referenced saw Putin pledge that Russia would respond to any nuclear attack against it, but would never be the first to strike in such a way. The comments came not long after Russia introduced its expanded nuclear arsenal, which included the Satan II missile.

“An aggressor should know that vengeance is inevitable, that he will be annihilated, and we would be the victims of the aggression,” Putin said at the time, according to The Moscow Times. “We will go to heaven as martyrs, and they will just drop dead. They will not even have time to repent for this.”

A report last week from the Russian Military Thought magazine claimed that the United States is working on plans to neutralize significant portions of Russia’s nuclear stockpile before the nation is able to launch a strike. This plan would involve the use of non-nuclear arms on the part of the U.S., with the report stating that “the United States seeks to possess strategic non-nuclear weapons with a short flight time to the target” that are not subject “to any bilateral or international restrictions.”

Meanwhile, Ukraine continues to prepare for the mounting possibility that Russia will deploy nuclear weapons against it in the face of its continually beleaguered invasion. On Tuesday, the country’s military engaged in drills to prepare for the possibility of a nuclear attack, with exercises focused on preparing “to eliminate the consequences of a nuclear strike.”

Newsweek reached out to the Department of Defense for comment.

Protests Against the Iranian Horn

Angry Iranians protest over ‘Bloody Friday’ massacre

  • 12-11- 2022 08:26 AM

PARIS: Hundreds of angry men protested after Friday prayers in Iran’s Sistan-Baluchistan province, online videos showed, six weeks after rights groups say dozens were killed in a crackdown in the restive region.

Security forces shot dead more than 90 people at protests that erupted after weekly prayers on September 30 in the provincial capital Zahedan, on Iran’s southeastern border with Pakistan, said Oslo-based group Iran Human Rights (IHR).

It came two weeks after demonstrations began in Iran over the death of Mahsa Amini, following her arrest in Tehran for allegedly flouting the Islamic republic’s strict dress code for women.

The protests were initially fanned by fury over the restrictive rules for women, but they have grown into a broad movement against the theocracy under supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, 83.

“Death to Khamenei,“ chanted men who emerged from mosques in Zahedan after Friday prayers, in a video published by IHR.

The rights group says at least 304 people have been killed at the protests across Iran since Amini’s death on September 16.

It says around a third of them were killed in Sistan-Baluchistan, including at least 92 who died on September 30 — in a massacre that activists have dubbed “Bloody Friday”.

The latest demonstrations come a week after more than a dozen people were killed in a crackdown by the security forces in Khash, another city in Sistan-Baluchistan.

Protests were seen taking place in Khash again today, and dozens of riot police were seen heading to protests in Iranshahr, in the same province, in video posted on social media and verified by AFP.

Security forces were seen firing tear gas to disperse protesters in Iranshahr, according to video published by the 1500tasvir monitoring channel.

‘Systemic impunity’

Amnesty International said at least 18 protesters, bystanders and worshippers — including two children — were killed in the crackdown on the “largely peaceful protests” in Khash.

The London-based rights group said it had recorded the names of at least 100 protesters killed by security forces in Sistan-Baluchistan since September 30, but added that the real number was much higher.

It called on the international community “to take urgent action to stop further killings of protesters in Sistan and Baluchistan province and across the rest of Iran”.

“The UN Human Rights Council must help break this cycle of systemic impunity by establishing an independent investigative and accountability mechanism to investigate crimes,“ Amnesty added.

Mass arrests have seen 1,000 people charged so far and activists say many risk the death penalty.

A panel of UN rights experts took that cause up today, urging “Iranian authorities to stop using the death penalty as a tool to squash protests”.

Iran’s foreign minister yesterday accused Western countries of “promoting violence and teaching (protesters) to make weapons and Molotov cocktails via social networks and the media”.

In a phone call with UN chief Antonio Guterres, Hossein Amir-Abdollahian also criticised Western countries that have pressed for a special session of the UN Human Rights Council on Iran’s response to the Amini protests.

Amir-Abdollahian said such a session should instead be held for “governments that propagate violence and terror, not for (Iran), which is the true defender of human rights and has exercised serious restraint regarding the recent riots”.

‘Chant Amini’s name’

The crackdown has mainly involved riot police, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and members of its Basij paramilitary force, many of them in plainclothes.

But Iran’s army ground forces commander said yesterday his troops were awaiting orders from Khamenei to intervene against the protesters.

Brigadier General Kioumars Heydari said the army’s failure to intervene so far should not be misinterpreted.

“If today the revolutionary community is not responding, it is because that is what the supreme leader has decided,“ he said. “But the day he gives the order to deal with them, they will have no place in our country.”

The Iranian authorities have waged a campaign of mass arrests to quell the protests, with athletes, celebrities and journalists caught up in the dragnet.

Activists have called on football fans attending the World Cup starting later this month to chant Amini’s name during the 22nd minute at each of Iran’s matches. She was 22 years old when she died.

“Help us immortalise #MahsaAmini and our fight against this brutal regime. At the 22nd minute of each World Cup game, say #MahsaAmini,“ tweeted New York-based campaigner Masih Alinejad.

At the World Cup, Iran is scheduled to face England on November 21, Wales on November 25 and the United States on November 29. — AFP

US and European Horns Put Pressure on Iran

US, EU push nuclear watchdog to order Iran explain Uranium traces ‘urgently’ (Wion Web Team) – Yesterday 1:01 am


Amid the US sanctions on Iran over concerns of its nuclear program, Washington along with UK and several European Union countries have joined hands to call out the nuclear watchdog IAEA to pass a resolution ordering Tehran to “urgently” explain uranium traces found at three undeclared sites. 

US, EU push nuclear watchdog to order Iran explain Uranium traces ‘urgently’© Provided by WION

As seen by Reuters in the resolution text, the US, Britain, France and Germany have sent this draft resolution on Friday to other countries on the 35-nation International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors. 

This key development comes ahead of a quarterly meeting which starts on Wednesday next week. Speculations are rife that Western powers will push IAEA during the meeting to call out Iran to cooperate. 

In 2019, IAEA first discovered the traces of man-made uranium that suggested they were once connected to Iran’s nuclear program. US intelligence agencies have said Iran has an organized nuclear weapons program however since long Iran has denied the allegations.

The nuclear watchdog on Thursday issued a report, which is also seen by Reuters, that said Iran has agreed to a visit by the UN nuclear watchdog this month to start giving answers. 

“IAEA chief Rafael Grossi takes note of Iran’s proposal to hold a further technical meeting with senior Agency officials in Tehran before the end of the month, but stresses that this meeting should be aimed at effectively clarifying and resolving those issues,” one of two confidential IAEA reports on Iran sent to member states on Thursday said, reported Reuters. 

The IAEA “expects to start receiving from Iran technically credible explanations on these issues, including access to locations and material, as well as the taking of samples as appropriate”, it added.

The US has also alleged Iranian military personnel of visiting Crimea where the country said Russian military personnel have been piloting the Tehran’s drones which is targeting civilian infrastructure in Ukraine.