Earthquake activity in the New York City area


Although the eastern United States is not as

seismically active

as regions near plate boundaries, large and damaging earthquakes do occur there. Furthermore, when these rare eastern U.S. earthquakes occur, the areas affected by them are much larger than for western U.S. earthquakes of the same magnitude.

Thus, earthquakes represent at least a moderate hazard to East Coast cities, including New York City and adjacent areas of very high population density.

Seismicity in the vicinity of New York City. Data are from the U.S. Geological Survey (Top, USGS) and the National Earthquake Information Center (Bottom, NEIC). In the top figure, closed red circles indicate 1924-2006 epicenters and open black circles indicate locations of the larger earthquakes that occurred in 1737, 1783 and 1884. Green lines indicate the trace of the Ramapo fault.

As can be seen in the maps of earthquake activity in this region(shown in the figure),

seismicity is scattered throughout most of the New York City area, with some hint of a concentration of earthquakes in the area surrounding Manhattan Island.

The largest known earthquake in this region occurred in 1884 and had a magnitude of approximately 5.For this earthquake, observations of fallen bricks and cracked plaster were reported from eastern Pennsylvania to central Connecticut, and the maximum intensity reported was at two sites in western Long Island (Jamaica, New York and Amityville, New York).

Two other earthquakes of approximately magnitude 5 occurred in this region in 1737 and 1783. The figure on the right shows maps of the distribution of earthquakes of magnitude 3 and greater that occurred in this region from 1924 to 2010, along with locations of the larger earthquakes that occurred in 1737, 1783 and 1884.


The NYC area is part of the geologically complex structure of the Northern

Appalachian Mountains. This complex structure was formed during the past half billion years when the Earth’s crust underlying the Northern Appalachians was the site of two major geological episodes, each of which has left its imprint on the NYC area bedrock.

Between about 450 million years ago and about 250 million years ago, the Northern Appalachian region was affected by a continental collision, in which the ancient African continent collided with the ancient North American continent to form the supercontinent Pangaea.

Beginning about 200 million years ago, the present-day Atlantic ocean began to form as plate tectonic forces began to


apart the continent of Pangaea. The last major episode of geological activity to affect the


in the New York area occurred about 100 million years ago, during the Mesozoic era, when continental rifting that led to the opening of the present-day Atlantic ocean formed the Hartford and


Mesozoic rift basins.

Earthquake rates in the northeastern United States are about 50 to 200 times lower than in California, but

the earthquakes that do occur in the northeastern U.S. are typically felt over a much broader region than earthquakes of the same magnitude in the western U.S.This means the area of damage from an earthquake in the northeastern U.S. could be larger than the area of damage caused by an earthquake of the same magnitude in the western U.S. The cooler rocks in the northeastern U.S. contribute to the seismic energy propagating as much as ten times further than in the warmer rocks of California.

A magnitude 4.0 eastern U.S. earthquake typically can be felt as far as 100 km (60 mi) from its

epicenter, but it infrequently causes damage near its source. A magnitude 5.5 eastern U.S. earthquake, although uncommon, can be felt as far as 500 km (300 mi) from its epicenter, and can cause damage as far away as 40 km (25 mi) from its epicenter. Earthquakes stronger than about magnitude 5.0 generate ground motions that are strong enough to be damaging in the epicentral area.

At well-studied plate boundaries like the

San Andreas fault

system in California, scientists can often make observations that allow them to identify the specific fault on which an earthquake took place. In contrast, east of the Rocky Mountains this is rarely the case.

The NYC area is far from the boundaries of the North American plate, which are in the center of the Atlantic Ocean, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the west coast of North America. The seismicity of the northeastern U.S. is generally considered to be due to ancient zones of weakness that are being reactivated in the present-day stress field. In this model, pre-existing faults that were formed during ancient geological episodes persist in the intraplate crust, and the earthquakes occur when the present-day stress is released along these zones of weakness.

The stress that causes the earthquakes is generally considered to be derived from present-day rifting at the Mid-Atlantic ridge.

Earthquakes and geologically mapped faults in the Northeastern U.S.

The northeastern U.S. has many known faults, but virtually all of the known faults have not been active for perhaps 90 million years or more. Also, the locations of the known faults are not well determined at earthquake depths. Accordingly, few (if any) earthquakes in the region can be unambiguously linked to known faults.

Given the current geological and seismological data, it is difficult to determine if a known fault in this region is still active today and could produce a modern earthquake. As in most other areas east of the Rocky Mountains, the best guide to earthquake hazard in the northeastern U.S. is probably the locations of the past earthquakes themselves.

The Ramapo fault and other New York City area faults

The Ramapo Fault, which marks the western boundary of the Newark rift basin, has been argued to be a major seismically active feature of this region,but it is difficult to discern the extent to which the Ramapo fault (or any other specific mapped fault in the area) might be any more of a source of future earthquakes than any other parts of the region. The Ramapo Fault zone spans more than 185 miles (300 kilometers) in

New York,

New Jersey, and

Pennsylvania. It is a system of


between the northern

Appalachian Mountains

and Piedmont areas to the east. This fault is perhaps the best known fault zone in the Mid-Atlantic region, and some small earthquakes have been known to occur in its vicinity. Recently, public knowledge about the fault has increased – especially after the 1970s, when the fault’s proximity to the Indian Point nuclear plant in New York was noticed.

There is insufficient evidence to unequivocally demonstrate any strong correlation of earthquakes in the New York City area with specific faults or other geologic structures in this region. The damaging earthquake affecting New York City in 1884 was probably not associated with the Ramapo fault because the strongest shaking from that earthquake occurred on Long Island (quite far from the trace of the Ramapo fault). The relationship between faults and earthquakes in the New York City area is currently understood to be more complex than any simple association of a specific earthquake with a specific mapped fault.

A 2008 study argued that a magnitude 6 or 7 earthquake might originate from the Ramapo fault zone,

which would almost definitely spawn hundreds or even thousands of fatalities and billions of dollars in damage. Studying around 400 earthquakes over the past 300 years, the study also argued that there was an additional fault zone extending from the Ramapo Fault zone into southwestern Connecticut. As can be seen in the above figure of seismicity, earthquakes are scattered throughout this region, with no particular concentration of activity along the Ramapo fault, or along the hypothesized fault zone extending into southwestern Connecticut.

Just off the northern terminus of the Ramapo fault is the

Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, built between 1956 and 1960 by

Consolidated Edison Company. The plant began operating in 1963, and it has been the subject of a controversy over concerns that an earthquake from the Ramapo fault will affect the power plant. Whether or not the Ramapo fault actually does pose a threat to this nuclear power plant remains an open question.

Antichrist passes bill criminalizing normalization with Israel

The Iraqi Parliament (Photo: Iraqi Parliament)
The Iraqi Parliament (Photo: Iraqi Parliament)

Iraq passes bill criminalizing normalization with Israel

Hakim al-Zamili, the first deputy speaker of parliament, said the legislative house continues enacting laws that protect Iraq’s “security”.  

Kurdistan 24

ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) – Iraqi lawmakers on Thursday passed a bill that criminalizes any normalization of ties with Israel, the legislative house announced. 

Following two readings of the bill by the members of parliament, the proposed law was unanimously approved by 275 lawmakers out of the parliament’s 329 members. 

Dubbed “the Banning the Normalization and Establishment of Relations with the Zionist Entity”, the newly-passed law mandates the punishment any person or entity that seeks to normalize or establish ties with Israel in any form or field, according to a copy of the legislation seen by Kurdistan 24. 

In a tweet he shared on Thursday, the populist Iraqi Shiite leader Muqtada Al-Sadr, who pushed for the legislation, called on people to publicly celebrate the passing of the bill.

Hakim al-Zamili, the first deputy speaker of parliament, said the legislative house continues enacting laws that protect Iraq’s “security”.

Since the inception of the Abraham Accords signed between Israel and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the fall of 2020, Sadr has warned on numerous occasions against establishing ties with Israel.

Following the establishment of Israel in 1948, Iraq was one of the Middle East’s Arab countries that declared war on it. The two countries never established ties.

Most of Iraq’s Jewish population fled the country in the years following Israel’s creation.

Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons and the First Nuclear War: Revelation 8

Pakistan test launches a Ghaznavi missile. Photo: ISPR Pakistan

Pakistan test launches a Ghaznavi missile. Photo: ISPR Pakistan

By Dr. Rahat Iqbal and Dr. Muhammadi

The notion of deterrence in South Asia triggered, after the acquisition of nuclear capability by Pakistan in May 1998. The two states that are India and Pakistan had an informal deterrence before becoming the nuclear power states. The Indian nuclear programme had been commenced since 1970s, after the explosion of nuclear test in 1974, under the garb of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. Thus, compelling Pakistan for achieving the nuclear weaponry capability. India openly declared itself as a nuclear weapon state after conducting the nuclear test on May 11th and 13th 1998 while Pakistan on May 28, 1998.

Pakistan’s quest for nuclear weaponry capability has played a significant role in limiting the conventional war with India as has been experienced in the past. Hence, captivating India for indirect postures in order to achieve national interest. Again, capturing of Kulbhushan Yadav, a serving commanding officer in the Indian Navy and an agent of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) from Baluchistan province (Pakistan) indulged in terrorist and spying activities for India, is the evidence to support the argument on any forum.

It may be assumed that minor conflicts as occurred in the recent past such as the Balakot incident in February 2019 and Brahmos Missile Incident in March 2022 may infiltrate the conviction of deterrence between the two states, however, this might not be the reality.  In broader spectrum, the possession of nuclear arsenal is the constant factor in maintaining the equilibrium among the conflicting states particularly between India and Pakistan. During Kargil crisis of 1999, both India and Pakistan adopted the ladder of de-escalation from escalation, as both were the nuclear power states by that time. Since then, it’s been almost 24 years that both the states did not venture full-fledged or limited war. 

Not only this, the significance of nuclear weapons can be also assessed from the perspective of Russian-Ukraine crisis. Ukraine, the newly independent country with the disintegration of USSR in 1991, was the third largest nuclear weapon state. By 1996, Ukraine had given up all its nuclear weapons in the exchange of security assurance and economic assistance. Pertinent to Budapest agreement on Memorandum of Security Assurance in 1994, US, UK and Russia itself, were key players for ensuring the security against any emerging threats from within and outside boundaries for Ukraine. Sadly, the countries that promised the security assurance to the poor country failed to compliance with the memorandum, leading the country to suffer with Russian invasion since March 2022. Hence, proving the nuclear weapons as an ultimate deterrent posture to the invasion, not only in case of India and Pakistan but also weaker state such as Ukraine. Analyzing strained relations with India, Pakistan is blessed to have its nuclear weaponry capability.

Some of the Indian officials did claim to have change their nuclear policy after the Balakot incident from a no first use to the first use.  That is from preventive strike to pre-emptive strike. Despite this move, to initiate a nuclear assault by any of the South Asian state is a hard decision to make, as the fear of retaliation exists. This has already been experienced at the episode of Operation Swift Retort. The use of nuclear weapons and capability will not have a severe repercussion on India and Pakistan only but will endanger other peripheral states of the region as well. 

Since the nuclearization of South Asia, both India and Pakistan are indulged in the nuclear arms race. US-Indo strategic partnership signed in 2008, may give an edge to India for flourishing and furnishing much advance technology in security perspectives as it is in developing stature both economically and strategically. Even so, the use of nuclear weapons in uncertain situation against Pakistan is a difficult decision to take at the Indian end. Pakistan has and is trying hard to equally compete India in the technological advancement. The development of several missiles such as Shaheen-III, Ababeel, Babur, Nasr and some other could be considered as a tool of deterrence for the state. Therefore, a stabilize nuclear deterrence is intact and do exist in South Asia. 

There is a possibility that scenarios such as Balakot incident, revocation of article 370 and 35A, illegal annexation of Kashmir and Brahmo Missile incident may have its negative implications in the region and also on the strategic stability of the South Asian which can lead to minor military retaliations. But even during the heightened tensions internally and externally, Pakistan has always responded as a mature and responsible nuclear state. 

Pakistan is a state that got independence with limited resource and with a disputed border confronting three full-fledged wars with India. It is a state which is striving for progress through self-help with several challenges at different fronts. While discussing the Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program, one must not forget the remarkable efforts and contribution made by the two legends that is late President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and late Dr. Abdul Qadeer as well as his team in making the program successful. For instance, if there had been no nuclear weapons, the existence and sustainability of Pakistan would have become difficult as like Ukraine.

About the authors

  • Dr. Rahat Iqbal is currently working as an Associate Director Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad, Pakistan. She holds a Ph.D. Degree in International Relations from University of Peshawar, Pakistan. She can be reached at
  • Dr. Muhammadi is currently working as an Associate Director of Research at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), Islamabad, Pakistan. He holds a Ph.D. in Politics and International Relations from Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, PR China. He can be reached at

Palestinians Are Preparing to Kill Jews outside the Temple Walls: Rev 11

Palestinians Are Preparing to Kill Jews on Sunday; Will the World Care?

by Elder of Ziyon

A photo of Operation Guardian of the Walls, taken on May 21, 2021. Photo Credit: IDF/Wikimedia Commons

Palestinians are preparing excuses to attack Israel on Sunday, which is Jerusalem Day.

Ma’an is not affiliated with any terror organization. Yet even that news outlet is saying that there is no reasonable alternative to attacking Jews on Sunday, using rockets, terrorism, or both.


Last year’s Jerusalem Day was marked with a war between Israel and Hamas, and with Hamas rockets launched at Jerusalem — endangering the very holy places that Muslims claim are so important to them. To Palestinians, last year’s war between Israel and Hamas was a net positive, because it showed that they could still affect Israel and stop Jews from celebrating the reunification of Jerusalem.

Most Palestinians don’t look at a war that killed hundreds and that destroyed part of Gaza as a loss. To them, it was a victory, and Hamas rode a wave of popularity for months afterwards, as it took on the mantle of “defender of Al Quds and Al Aqsa.”

All the Palestinians need is an excuse to repeat their attacks on Jews this year. And they are collecting them.

The Ma’an editorial ends not with a threat, but with a virtual promise:

The statement of the Palestinian Authority and the statement of the Kingdom of Jordan to hold the occupation responsible for the upcoming religious war represents more than a warning of what will happen.

The question is not whether a new battle will take against Israel. Rather, the more accurate question is what miracle can stop the violence.

Palestinians are being primed in all of their media for war.

Israel needs to plan accordingly. And it should say, in no uncertain terms, that it will respond to any threats with the necessary force and resolve. And the Jewish state should publicize and translate these threats today, not after the violence occurs.

Elder of Ziyon is a pro-Israel blogger and activist.

Terrorists Fail To Assassinate The Beast of the Sea: Revelation 13

Former president George W. Bush

Elizabeth Troutman • May 24, 2022 5:45 pm

An Islamic State operative plotted to assassinate former president George W. Bush at his home in Dallas by smuggling assassins across the Mexican border, according to an FBI search warrant application obtained by Forbes.

The FBI alleged in the application that Shihab Ahmed Shihab Shihab, an Iraqi national residing in Columbus, Ohio, planned to sneak four terrorists across the border to kill Bush. The suspect, who filmed the former president’s house in November in order to plot his assassination, was charged in federal court on Tuesday with aiding and abetting attempted murder, according to the Department of Justice.

The FBI said it uncovered the plan through the work of two confidential informants and surveillance of the alleged plotter’s account on the WhatsApp messaging platform. According to the warrant application, the suspect said he wanted to assassinate Bush in retaliation for the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq.

Shihab said he planned to bring four Iraqi ISIS operatives located in Iraq, Turkey, Egypt, and Denmark into the United States, one of whom he claimed was “the secretary of an ISIS financial minister,” according to the warrant application. His scheme allegedly involved acquiring Mexican visitor visas for the assassins in order to get them across the border.

Shihab claimed he belonged to a terrorist unit called Al-Raed, led by a former Iraqi pilot for Saddam Hussein, the warrant application said. According to a conversation detailed in the warrant, Shihab’s job was “to locate and conduct surveillance on former president Bush’s residences and/or offices and obtain firearms and vehicles to use in the assassination.”

Two law enforcement officials maintained that Bush’s safety was never threatened, and a representative for Bush told Forbes the former president has “all the confidence in the world in the United States Secret Service and our law enforcement and intelligence communities.”

Seamus Hughes, an expert on extremism and counterterrorism at George Washington University, told Forbes the United States has not seen a plot of this scale in years. 

“It shows that while domestic terrorism rightly takes a good amount of counterterrorism focus, the threats are not there alone,” Hughes said.

Palestinian teen shot dead in Israeli raid outside the Temple Walls: Revelation 11

Palestinian teen shot dead in Israeli raid on West Bank

MAY 24, 2022 — 7:05PM

Health authorities said a 16-year-old Palestinian died early Wednesday after being wounded during clashes with Israeli forces in the occupied West Bank, the latest in a wave of violence that has persisted for months.

The Palestinian health ministry said Ghaith Yamin was wounded by a gunshot to the head and died at a hospital. Wafa, the official Palestinian news agency, reported that the clashes erupted when Jewish worshipers, escorted by the military, arrived at a shrine on the outskirts of Nablus city to pray.

At least 15 Palestinians were wounded by live fire, according to Wafa, during the clashes near Joseph’s Tomb, a frequent flashpoint site. Some Jews believe biblical Joseph is buried at the site, while Palestinians say it’s the tomb of a Sheikh.

On Tuesday, Israeli authorities said they have foiled a wide-ranging plot by Palestinian militant Hamas group to shoot a member of parliament, kidnap soldiers and bomb Jerusalem’s light rail system during a surge of violence that has left dozens dead in recent weeks.

The police and Shin Bet security services said in a statement that five Palestinian men from east Jerusalem had been arrested for allegedly planning a shooting attack against far-right lawmaker Itamar Ben-Gvir and other targets at a time of heightened tensions in the flashpoint city.

The suspects, authorities said, had planned the attacks last month, during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, to “destabilize” the area around the Al-Aqsa Mosque, known to Jews as the Temple Mount.

Authorities said a drone was found, intended to be armed and used in an attack on Jerusalem’s light rail, which sees daily crowds of commuters and tourists.

They identified the plot leaders as Hamas militants Rashid Rashak and Mansur Tzafadi, who “delivered many fireworks, flags and Hamas videos” to east Jerusalem neighborhoods last month during Ramadan. Security forces also seized a camera to be used to photograph “abductees,” cash and other equipment.

The statement did not say how close they came to carrying out the plot. There was no immediate comment from Hamas.

The arrests came at a time of heightened violence between Palestinian demonstrators and Israeli police in east Jerusalem, much of it concentrated at a contested holy site. Israel also has stepped up military activity in the West Bank in recent weeks in response to a series of deadly attacks inside Israel.

Next week, Israeli ultranationalists plan to march through the main Muslim thoroughfare of the Old City.

The march is meant to celebrate Israel’s capture of east Jerusalem in the 1967 Mideast war. Israel subsequently annexed the area in a step that is not internationally recognized. The Palestinians claim east Jerusalem as the capital of a future state.

Also inflaming tensions is the death of Al Jazeera reporter Shireen Abu Akleh during a firefight in Jenin. A reconstruction by The Associated Press lends support to assertions from both Palestinian authorities and Abu Akleh’s colleagues that the bullet that cut her down came from an Israeli gun.

Any conclusive answer is likely to prove elusive due to the severe distrust between the two sides, each of which is in sole possession of potentially crucial evidence.

The Obama Deal is Tenuous

US Special Envoy for Iran Rob Malley testifies at the Capitol, May 25, 2022. (Screengrab)

US Special Envoy for Iran Rob Malley testifies at the Capitol, May 25, 2022. (Screengrab)

Biden administration will submit any new Iran deal to Congress for review: Malley

The US special envoy for Iran said he was “not particularly optimistic, to put it mildly,” about reaching an agreement.

Joseph Haboush, Al Arabiya English

Published: 25 May ,2022: 05:04 PM GSTUpdated: 25 May ,2022: 10:35 PM GST

US Special Envoy for Iran Rob Malley said on Wednesday that the Biden administration would submit any potential nuclear deal to Congress for review.

Testifying in front of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (SFRC), Malley continued a previous trend of blaming the Trump administration for Iran inching closer to being able to acquire a nuclear weapon.

“The alternative theory JCPOA critics advanced was given a chance. It failed, and emphatically so,” he said, using the acronym for the 2015 nuclear deal brokered by the Obama administration.

Malley was pressed by both Republicans and Democrats during the hearing, where the Biden administration was heavily criticized for its approach and adamance on reaching a deal with Iran.

He still said he believed that reaching a deal with Iran was in the best interest of the US but noted that there was a possibility of no agreement being reached. “We do not have a deal with Iran and prospects for reaching one are, at best, tenuous,” he said.

For almost a year, Biden administration officials have been saying that Iran is “weeks away” from being able to get a nuclear weapon. Asked about these statements, Malley said: “At this point, it is our technical expert assessment that the non-proliferation benefits of the deal are worth the sanctions relief we would provide.”

Doubling down on his skepticism of a deal being reached, Malley said there remained a “huge question.” He said he was “not particularly optimistic, to put it mildly.”

Malley also hit back at reports, suggesting Moscow was given the lead role in the talks. Iran has refused to engage in direct dialogue with US officials in Vienna, where officials had been meeting to revive the deal. “I think there’s been a lot written about Russia‘s role, which is pure fantasy. Russia has not played a central role in these negotiations; I think our European allies would take offense at hearing that,” according to Malley.