The Ramapo Fault Of The Sixth Seal (Rev 6:12)

Earthquake activity in the New York City area

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Although the eastern United States is not as seismically active as regions near plate boundaries, large and damaging earthquakes do occur there. Furthermore, when these rare eastern U.S. earthquakes occur, the areas affected by them are much larger than for western U.S. earthquakes of the same magnitude.[1] Thus, earthquakes represent at least a moderate hazard to East Coast cities, including New York City and adjacent areas of very high population density.

As can be seen in the maps of earthquake activity in this region, seismicity is scattered throughout most of the New York City area, with some hint of a concentration of earthquakes in the area surrounding Manhattan Island. The largest known earthquake in this region occurred in 1884 and had a magnitude of approximately 5. For this earthquake, observations of fallen bricks and cracked plaster were reported from eastern Pennsylvania to central Connecticut, and the maximum intensity reported was at two sites in western Long Island (Jamaica, New York and Amityville, New York). Two other earthquakes of approximately magnitude 5 occurred in this region in 1737 and 1783.[2][3][4] The figure on the right shows maps of the distribution of earthquakes of magnitude 3 and greater that occurred in this region from 1924 to 2010, along with locations of the larger earthquakes that occurred in 1737, 1783 and 1884.


The NYC area is part of the geologically complex structure of the Northern Appalachian Mountains. This complex structure was formed during the past half billion years when the Earth’s crust underlying the Northern Appalachians was the site of two major geological episodes, each of which has left its imprint on the NYC area bedrock.[5][6] Between about 450 million years ago and about 250 million years ago, the Northern Appalachian region was affected by a continental collision, in which the ancient African continent collided with the ancient North American continent to form the supercontinent Pangaea. Beginning about 200 million years ago, the present-day Atlantic ocean began to form as plate tectonic forces began to rift apart the continent of Pangaea. The last major episode of geological activity to affect the bedrock in the New York area occurred about 100 million years ago, during the Mesozoic era, when continental rifting that led to the opening of the present-day Atlantic ocean formed the Hartford and Newark Mesozoic rift basins.

Earthquake rates in the northeastern United States are about 50 to 200 times lower than in California, but the earthquakes that do occur in the northeastern U.S. are typically felt over a much broader region than earthquakes of the same magnitude in the western U.S.[1] This means the area of damage from an earthquake in the northeastern U.S. could be larger than the area of damage caused by an earthquake of the same magnitude in the western U.S.[7] The cooler rocks in the northeastern U.S. contribute to the seismic energy propagating as much as ten times further than in the warmer rocks of California. A magnitude 4.0 eastern U.S. earthquake typically can be felt as far as 100 km (60 mi) from its epicenter, but it infrequently causes damage near its source. A magnitude 5.5 eastern U.S. earthquake, although uncommon, can be felt as far as 500 km (300 mi) from its epicenter, and can cause damage as far away as 40 km (25 mi) from its epicenter. Earthquakes stronger than about magnitude 5.0 generate ground motions that are strong enough to be damaging in the epicentral area.

At well-studied plate boundaries like the San Andreas fault system in California, scientists can often make observations that allow them to identify the specific fault on which an earthquake took place. In contrast, east of the Rocky Mountains this is rarely the case.[8] The NYC area is far from the boundaries of the North American plate, which are in the center of the Atlantic Ocean, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the west coast of North America. The seismicity of the northeastern U.S. is generally considered to be due to ancient zones of weakness that are being reactivated in the present-day stress field. In this model, pre-existing faults that were formed during ancient geological episodes persist in the intraplate crust, and the earthquakes occur when the present-day stress is released along these zones of weakness. The stress that causes the earthquakes is generally considered to be derived from present-day rifting at the Mid-Atlantic ridge.

Earthquakes and geologically mapped faults in the Northeastern U.S.

The northeastern U.S. has many known faults, but virtually all of the known faults have not been active for perhaps 90 million years or more. Also, the locations of the known faults are not well determined at earthquake depths. Accordingly, few (if any) earthquakes in the region can be unambiguously linked to known faults. Given the current geological and seismological data, it is difficult to determine if a known fault in this region is still active today and could produce a modern earthquake. As in most other areas east of the Rocky Mountains, the best guide to earthquake hazard in the northeastern U.S. is probably the locations of the past earthquakes themselves.[9]

The Ramapo fault and other New York City area faults

The Ramapo Fault, which marks the western boundary of the Newark rift basin, has been argued to be a major seismically active feature of this region,[10] but it is difficult to discern the extent to which the Ramapo fault (or any other specific mapped fault in the area) might be any more of a source of future earthquakes than any other parts of the region.[11] The Ramapo Fault zone spans more than 185 miles (300 kilometers) in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It is a system of faults between the northern Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont areas to the east.[12] This fault is perhaps the best known fault zone in the Mid-Atlantic region, and some small earthquakes have been known to occur in its vicinity. Recently, public knowledge about the fault has increased – especially after the 1970s, when the fault’s proximity to the Indian Point nuclear plant in New York was noticed.

There is insufficient evidence to unequivocally demonstrate any strong correlation of earthquakes in the New York City area with specific faults or other geologic structures in this region. The damaging earthquake affecting New York City in 1884 was probably not associated with the Ramapo fault because the strongest shaking from that earthquake occurred on Long Island (quite far from the trace of the Ramapo fault). The relationship between faults and earthquakes in the New York City area is currently understood to be more complex than any simple association of a specific earthquake with a specific mapped fault.[13]

A 2008 study argued that a magnitude 6 or 7 earthquake might originate from the Ramapo fault zone,[3] which would almost definitely spawn hundreds or even thousands of fatalities and billions of dollars in damage.[14] Studying around 400 earthquakes over the past 300 years, the study also argued that there was an additional fault zone extending from the Ramapo Fault zone into southwestern Connecticut. As can be seen in the above figure of seismicity, earthquakes are scattered throughout this region, with no particular concentration of activity along the Ramapo fault, or along the hypothesized fault zone extending into southwestern Connecticut.[2][11][15]

Just off the northern terminus of the Ramapo fault is the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, built between 1956 and 1960 by Consolidated Edison Company. The plant began operating in 1963, and it has been the subject of a controversy over concerns that an earthquake from the Ramapo fault will affect the power plant. Whether or not the Ramapo fault actually does pose a threat to this nuclear power plant remains an open question.[11]

Turmoil Outside the Temple Walls (Revelation 11:2)

Hamas calls for intifada as Trump’s Jerusalem move stirs protest

Dana Khraiche and Gwen Ackerman, Bloomberg

The Gaza Strip’s militant Hamas rulers called for a new uprising against President Donald Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, while protesters burned American flags and pictures of the U.S. leader in demonstrations across the West Bank.

“We demand, call and will launch an intifada in the face of the Zionist occupation,” Ismail Haniyeh said in a speech Thursday broadcast by Al Jazeera television. “Jerusalem is being kidnapped and ripped from us.”

Thousands of Palestinians and Israelis died in two previous uprisings.

While it’s unclear if there is appetite for a new uprising, or intifada, anger runs deep in Palestinian territories and among Muslims elsewhere against Trump’s decision to break with decades of U.S. policy, which includes plans to move the U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv. Jerusalem is holy to Muslims, Jews and Christians, and previous U.S. administrations had resisted moves that could risk inflaming Muslim passions and alienating Muslim allies.

“We will not accept your patronage of the peace process any more,” Palestinian Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah said of Trump. “We will confront you with unity, and Palestine will return to its 1967 borders with holy Jerusalem as its capital,” he said, referring to the West Bank, Gaza Strip and east Jerusalem.

The Israeli and Palestinian stock markets, no strangers to turmoil, were little changed.

In taking the decision, Trump has put the Israeli-Palestinian conflict back in the spotlight in a region roiled by multiple wars and political turmoil since the 2011 Arab Spring. But while U.S. officials said they were recognizing a reality, ignoring Arab opposition to the move suggests Trump is betting that key allies are more keen on U.S. support against Iran and Islamist extremists, or are too distracted by regional disputes to take drastic action.

Aside from Jordan, which has been vocal in condemning Trump’s decision and where mass protests are planned for Friday, official reactions from Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt have been largely restrained.

Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. highly value the relationship with Trump and will not do anything to undermine it,” said Ayham Kamel, head of the Middle East and North Africa department at Eurasia Group. “They will prioritize maintaining the relationship with the Trump administration.”

Some European leaders were more critical.

“The announcement has the potential to send us backward to even darker times than the ones we are already living in,” said European Union foreign-policy chief Federica Mogherini. “This move could diminish the potential role that the United States can play in the region and create more confusion around this.”

The president “is simply carrying out the will of the American people,” U.S. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson told reporters in Vienna. “The reality is Israel’s government offices, its courts are all in Jerusalem today, so it is just acknowledgment of what is reality on the ground.”

With a “day of rage” called across the West Bank, Israeli security forces braced for unrest. The army ordered the deployment of additional battalions to the West Bank, and more troops were put on standby, the military spokesman’s office said.

Palestinians burned tires and hurled rocks at Israeli soldiers in various West Bank cities, and troops responded with tear gas. A strike shuttered shops and schools across the West Bank and Gaza.

“The ground is definitely going to burn,” Effie Sharon, a 41-year-old owner of a Jerusalem kiosk, said late Wednesday. Yehuda Blackman, a 21-year-old working at a nearby bar, said any violence would be worth it “if it brings a certain recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, which there hasn’t been so far.”

The ferment spread across the Muslim world:

– Al Jazeera television reported that influential Iraqi Shiite cleric Muqtada Al-Sadr called on resistance groups to meet urgently to discuss military action against Israel.

– Protests were scheduled in Jordan, which has a predominantly Palestinian population and is the custodian of the fought-over Jerusalem shrine that’s the site of the Al-Aqsa mosque and the biblical Jewish temple.

– Saudi Arabia called on the U.S. to reverse its decision, calling it a “drastic regression in the efforts to move the peace process forward.”

Demonstrations have also been called in various Muslim nations after the main prayers on Friday, often a flashpoint when passions over Jerusalem are kindled.

An Israeli police spokesman didn’t have immediate information on whether access to Al-Aqsa would be curtailed Small protests took place in Egypt, outside the journalists syndicate and at some universities, though the response was muted Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah called for protests in the group’s southern Beirut bastion on Monday, and urged Muslim countries to summon U.S. ambassadors and cut all contacts with Israel

In Tunis, hundreds protested outside the headquarters of the main labor union, which had called on the public to respond to Trump’s decision. One of them, Mariam Barbary, said Arab anger was directed at their own “hypocritical” governments as well as the U.S. “We have lost confidence in these Arab regimes and it is up to the Arab street to act and pressure for a change in this decision,” she said.

“We understand and expected the emotional reaction,” U.S. Ambassador to Israel David Friedman said in an interview with Fox News Thursday. But people who are demonstrating “did not listen carefully enough,” he said. Trump’s recognition of Jerusalem as the Israeli capital is “the best path for peace,” he said, adding that the U.S. is taking appropriate precautions to protect Americans abroad.

The State Department has issued warnings to personnel in sites where unrest is anticipated, including Jerusalem, the West Bank and Karachi, Pakistan’s commercial capital.

The full impact of Trump’s decision won’t be known until his son-in-law, Jared Kushner, unveils a peace plan he has been working on. But that may take too long.

President Trump has delivered a message to the Palestinian people: the two-state solution is over,” the chief Palestinian negotiator, Saeb Erekat, said in an interview published in the Haaretz daily, taking a divergent view from Palestinian Prime Minister Hamdallah. “Now is the time to transform the struggle for one-state with equal rights for everyone living in historic Palestine, from the river to the sea.”

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, addressing foreign diplomats, predicted other countries will move their embassies to Jerusalem. On Wednesday, the Czech Republic issued a statement saying it recognizes west Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, but isn’t considering moving its embassy at this time. Israel Radio, without saying where it got its information, said the Philippines was considering an embassy relocation.

Bloomberg’s Margaret Talev, Donna Abu-Nasr, Fadwa Hodali, Saud Abu Ramadan, Zainab Fattah, Jonathan Tirone and Jihen Laghmari contributed.

Antichrist Threatens Trump Over Jerusalem

Iraq militia threatens US forces over Trump Jerusalem move


\Iraqi forces advance into the western desert on November 24, 2017, in an operation to flush out fugitive Islamic State group fighters


The auxiliary force has fought alongside the army against IS

An Iranian-backed militia in Iraq threatened Thursday to attack US forces in the country after President Donald Trump recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, while Baghdad summoned Washington’s envoy.

“The decision by Trump on Al-Quds (Jerusalem) makes it legitimate to strike the American forces in Iraq,” Al-Nojaba militia chief Akram al-Kaabi said in a statement.

The Shiite group, established in 2013 and supported by Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, numbers around 1,500 fighters and is part of the Hashed al-Shaabi (Popular Mobilization) auxiliary force that has fought alongside the army against the Islamic State group.

The US has thousands of troops stationed in Iraq to help in the fight against IS.

Officially, the Pentagon says it has 5,262 personnel in the country, but other figures released by the US military have put the number at almost 9,000.

SAUL LOEB (AFP) US President Donald Trump signs a memorandum recognising Jerusalem as Israel’s capital on December 6, 2017

Trump’s move to end decades of careful US policy on Jerusalem has sparked a storm of condemnation around the globe, both from Washington’s traditional allies and its international foes.

Iraqi Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari summoned the US ambassador in the country to protest the shift, while powerful Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, who heads his own militia, demanded the closure of the American embassy in Baghdad and warned that “we can reach Israel through Syria”.

The spiritual head of Iraq’s Shiites Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani in a statement “denounced and condemned the American decision that injures the feelings of hundreds of millions of Arabs and Muslims”.

“This will not change the fact that Jerusalem is an occupied territory that needs to be returned to its legitimate Palestinian owners,” he said.

Korea Prepares for Nuclear War


(SEOUL, South Korea) — North Korea says a nuclear war on the Korean Peninsula has become a matter of when, not if, as it continued to lash out at a massive joint military exercise between the United States and South Korea involving hundreds of advanced warplanes.

In comments attributed to an unnamed Foreign Ministry spokesman, North Korea also claimed high-ranked U.S. officials, including CIA Director Mike Pompeo, have further confirmed American intent for war with a series of “bellicose remarks.”

Pompeo said Saturday that U.S. intelligence agencies believe North Korean leader Kim Jong Un doesn’t have a good idea about how tenuous his situation is domestically and internationally. The North’s spokesman said Pompeo provoked the country by “impudently criticizing our supreme leadership which is the heart of our people.”

“We do not wish for a war but shall not hide from it, and should the U.S. miscalculate our patience and light the fuse for a nuclear war, we will surely make the U.S. dearly pay the consequences with our mighty nuclear force which we have consistently strengthened,” the spokesman said.

The comments were carried by the official Korean Central News Agency late Wednesday, hours after the United States flew a B-1B supersonic bomber over South Korea as part of a massive combined aerial exercise involving hundreds of warplanes. North Korean propaganda is often filled with extreme claims and threats, and the spokesman’s comments were consistent with the tone of previous statements condemning Washington and Seoul.

South Korea’s Joint Chiefs of Staff said the Guam-based bomber simulated land strikes at a military field near South Korea’s eastern coast during a drill with U.S. and South Korean fighter jets.

“Through the drill, the South Korean and U.S. air forces displayed the allies’ strong intent and ability to punish North Korea when threatened by nuclear weapons and missiles,” the South Korean military said in a statement.

B-1Bs flyovers have become an increasingly familiar show of force to North Korea, which after three intercontinental ballistic missile tests has clearly moved closer toward building a nuclear arsenal that could viably target the U.S. mainland.

The five-day drills that began Monday involve more than 200 aircraft, including six U.S. F-22 and 18 F-35 stealth fighters.

North Korea hates such displays of American military might at close range and typically uses strong language to condemn them as invasion rehearsals. It has been particularly sensitive about B-1B bombers, describing them as “nuclear strategic” although the planes were switched to conventional weaponry in the mid-1990s.

Iran Threatens Israel Over Jerusalem

Khamenei warns of ‘heavy blow’ against Israel over capital declaration


BEIRUT, LEBANON (6:20 A.M.) – Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei warned from Tehran on Wednesday that “Zionists” would be dealt a heavy blow if Jerusalem is recognised as the capital of Israel.

Speaking to an audience of Iranian officials and ambassadors of Muslim countries to Iran, Khamenei stressed that “Zionists” would be unable to achieve their goals, and that Palestine would be finally liberated.

Iranian President Hassan Rouhani, also present at the conference, called the US decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital “a new adventure of global arrogance.”

Khamenei and Rouhani’s declarations came at the heels of US President Donald Trump’s alleged decision to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, and order to move the US embassy from Tel Aviv to the city.

The White House’s announcement, scheduled at 18:00 GMT on Wednesday, was accompanied by worldwide condemnation.

Source: Ruptly